Science

Today, HIV infection is no longer a death sentence for those with access to anti-retrovirals. These drugs suppress replication of the virus and keep viral levels low in patients. However, as HIV patients on anti-retrovirals age, they show higher rates of age-related diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Understanding HIV pathogenesis is the focus of the laboratory of Warner C. Greene MD PhD, HIV expert and Director of the Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology.
Although it can be cooked in a separate pot, stuffing is traditionally cooked right inside the turkey, absorbing the bird’s flavorful juices and coming out moister than its stovetop counterpart.

So much of science and medicine comes down to taking pictures. Biology, especially, has long been considered an observational enterprise.

The most lethal part of cancer is that it spreads.

Stopping the spread of cancer, known as metastasis, would be a leap forward in treatment. However, first, we must better understand why and how metastasis happens.

Meat

Red wine. Coffee. Dark chocolate. Epidemiologists, doctors, and nutrition scientists are constantly analyzing the good and bad consequences of different food and beverage components of our diets and reporting correlative data.

Cancer is not just one disease. Were it, we could imagine a single cure. Instead, we find that cancer is a mix of clinically separable diseases.

The past few years have seen an increase in robotics inspired by the natural world. These robots are designed to look and move like animals, from flying like a bird to running and jumping like a cheetah. Aside from being intriguing engineering challenges, these types of robotics could also be used as a substitute for humans in dangerous or difficult situations.

Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell. These organelles support cellular functions through ATP production and have been implicated in diseases ranging from cancer to Parkinson’s. Additionally, their function extends beyond energy.

Image of an elephant and baby elephant walking.
Increases in body size and lifespan should theoretically make an animal more prone to DNA replication errors that can produce cancer-causing mutations. African elephants, weighing up to 12,000 pounds and living up to 70 years, should be riddled with tumors, yet somehow they live long, cancer-free lives.
Image of neuron.
Consider brains and computers. How are they similar? Both can perform complex, rational tasks. Both take inputs and make decisions. More generally, both occupy physical space, although computers increasingly less so. As part of their physical nature, both can be subdivided into parts, the organization and connectivity of which creates their function.